minutes de lecture

Dual-use goods

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Most industrialized countries have implemented export control policies for dual-use goods and technologies to combat the availability of means of mass destruction and the proliferation of conventional weapons. These measures enable them to remain attentive to international requirements concerning the distribution of products and services likely to have both civilian and military uses.

The countries of the European Union have introduced a Community regulation (2021/821) for the control of exports of dual-use goods, with the aim of adhering to international trade agreements. One of the aims of this regulation is to respect embargoes and protect human rights.

Dual-use goods encompass both tangible products (machinery, tools, equipment, etc.) and intangible elements (technologies, services) that could have civilian or military applications, potentially contributing to the development or dissemination of weapons of mass destruction. This category can cover a whole range of goods, from drones to software or photographs. To identify a dual-use item, it is advisable to refer to Annex I of Regulation (EU) 2021/821, which sets out the list of controlled items.

Exports of dual-use goods are governed by specific legislation. The Dual-Use Goods Department is responsible for checking applications and issuing export authorizations.

Within the European Union, ten categories of goods are considered sensitive or strategic:

  • Category 0: Nuclear materials, installations and equipment
  • Category 1: Materials, chemical products
  • Category 2: Materials processing (ball bearings, machine tools, furnaces)
  • Category 3: Electronics (electronic components, integrated circuits)
  • Category 4: Digital or hybrid computers
  • Category 5: Telecommunications and information security
  • Category 6: Sensors and lasers
  • Category 7: Navigation and aeroelectronics (navigation systems)
  • Category 8: Marine (vehicles, propellers)
  • Category 9: Aerospace and propulsion